Monday, July 30, 2012

What is HDTV? - A Closer Look

What Is HD Television? - A Closer Look

By Layne Kurtz

HDTV Explained

So What is HDTV? HD stands for High Definition. HDTV means High Definition Television, which provides resolution which is higher than the standard television.

High definition programs are becoming more and more popular by the day, which makes us eager to know what this technology is. In HDTV high levels of resolution is provided in the digital television format.

[caption id="attachment_76" align="aligncenter" width="300"]What Is HD Television? - A Closer Look What Is HD Television? - A Closer Look[/caption]

Not all digital formats are in high definition. In the world of television entertainment HDTV has become the talk of town since HDTV offers its customers higher resolution, better picture quality and clarity as compared to the analog television.

In the HDTV, a broadcaster transmits widescreen picture which are more detailed and of high quality as compared to the analog or digital television. HDTV is transmitted in two different categories like the 1920x1080p that is two megapixels, and the 1280x720p which is one megapixel. The "p" stands for progressive scan.

When the images are transmitted in two megapixel format HDTV offers five times more pixels than the standard definition television. HDTV displays include the plasmas, direct view, and rear screen and front screen projections. HDTV requires HDTV tuner to view the programs.

Before making a decision to buy a HDTV, one need to understand that all programs are not beamed in HD format, while most service providers charge extra for HD programs. Prices of a HDTV depend on the size of the television, and the technology used.

Most of the programs shown in HDTV are 1080p resolution. HDTV signals are aired in 16:9 aspect ratios and are referred to as widescreen or letterbox. HDTV can be purchased with the standard format 4:3 or widescreen format 16:9 aspect ratio. The choice depends on the preference to rectangle or square screen of the customer. Most of the HDTV programs fit into these aspect ratios.

If your still not sure what the advantages of HDTV technology is, just wait until you get new HDTV television. When my family first got our first one, we were just overwhelmed by the increase of viewing quality compared to our old set.

Once you take the time and get your first HDTV set, I'm positive you will never look at television the same way.

HDTV is the best technology in the television market, and with the increase in HDTV programs television viewing has been transported to next level entertainment.

A lot of times people have questions about the main differences between HDTV and HD Ready LCD televisions. The main difference is that HDTV is the digital way of broadcasting, and because of the digital video compression, HDTV required much less bandwidth.

Many people who live in areas where both types of telecasts are available can opt for an HD Ready television to watch both types of programming.

To be more exact, HDTV is able to receive both analogue and digital programming. The aspect ratio allows for an HDTV to vary from a 4:3 to a 16:9 ratio.

For more information, make sure and follow the links below.

Take advantage of these helpful tips, Next, click HERE -->> HD Television or, check out the difference between LCD and HD TV's

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What is Affiliate Marketing?

What Is Affiliate Marketing?

By Choulian Havro

Affiliate Marketing Definition?

I'm an affiliate marketer. When I first started an internet business, I didn't have any product or service to sell, and I was totally in the dark for 3 months until I was introduced to affiliate marketing.

[caption id="attachment_72" align="aligncenter" width="300"]What Is Affiliate Marketing? What Is Affiliate Marketing?[/caption]

You want to start an internet home based business and you don't have a product or service to sell. The easiest and cheapest way to start is be an Affiliate Marketer. I'm going to give you a brief but clear affiliate marketing definition, and you can decide if this is what you want to do.

Affiliate Marketing Guide

There are 3 parties involved - Advertisers A, Publishers (YOU) and Buyers.

Advertisers A (also called Merchant A) - the person or company that has a product (eBook, videos, equipment,... etc.) or service (coaching, membership,... etc.) to sell online.

Publishers- people like you who promote Advertisers' products or services.

Buyers- people who use search engine like Google to purchase products/services online.

Let's put these 3 parties together:

    • You, the Publisher, register toAdvertiser A's internet marketing affiliate program (through ClickBank, Peerfly,... etc.), and receive a unique affiliate link (it's a code that leads Buyers from Publisher to Advertiser through "CLICK HERE" link.


    • Advertiser A sells weight loss products and looks for Publishers to promote their product/service. They offer a commission of certain % to you when a sale is led by your website.


  • Your job as an Affiliate (Publisher) is to promote Advertiser A's product online to attract Buyers to your website.

Affiliate Marketing Commissions:

    • When a buyer, someone who is looking for a weight loss product, comes to your website, there would be places where you used "CLICK HERE" links (affiliate code) to direct the buyer to theAdvertiser A's main website.


  • When the buyer makes a purchase, the affiliate code will info Advertiser A where the lead came from, and it will be credited to you. You will get the commission for leading the buyer to Advertiser A.

The process is simple. Affiliate Marketing is like being a broker (offline). You bring the customers in and get paid for your work. Instead of knocking on door to door or making cold calls, you just need to setup a website (one page of web page will do the job wonderfully). Bring traffic to your website, invite people to "CLICK HERE" and take them to where the produce/service site is.

3 Months ago when I decided to be an online affiliate, I signed up for a membership and learned to create a squeeze page (one page website), and one thing after another, I've become an affiliate marketer.

What I have learned I am more than happy to show you - FREE of charge. Go to and get 1 FREE eBook that will show you how to build a website in a few hours, and also, 26 FREE videos to show you how to make money online.

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What is Ugali?

What Is Ugali?

By Lamaro Schoenleber

There are so many culinary secrets and delicacies in African cuisine still awaiting general discovery. Indeed, African cuisine could be said to be the last frontier in world cuisine.

[caption id="attachment_69" align="aligncenter" width="300"]What Is Ugali? What Is Ugali?[/caption]

One such open culinary secret is Ugali.

There is honestly, seriously, no other word for it. If you say maize meal bread or millet bread, it does not quite describe this dish.

It is probably the most widespread dish in Africa. There are variations of it right across Africa.

In West Africa, a variation of this dish is called foo-foo. Foo-foo is made of cooked yam, cocoyam or cassava, pounded into a mash and served with various sauces like fish, meat or vegetables.

In Kenya, Ugali is made with maize flour. Maize flour is added to boiling water and mingled until smooth, to various degrees of stiffness. Ugali is served with vegetables, fish, meat, fermented milk or pulses, and eaten with the fingers. Ugali is also referred to as sima along the coast of Kenya.

In Uganda, Ugali is made of maize (then it is called posho), millet or sorghum flour (then it is called kuon kal or kalo) or of cassava flour.

In southern Africa, it is referred to as pap.

Many men, even if given the choice of rice, cooking banana or wheat breads, prefer Ugali because they say it leaves them feeling satisfied for a longer period of time.

Consequently, many eating houses in Africa serve chapati (a flat fried wheat flour bread), rice or mashed cooking banana along with Ugali.

Ugali - or variations of it - is always eaten with the fingers. There is a complex etiquette and art to this, which must be learnt from childhood. The fingers are not used to shove food into the mouth, but to delicately carry food - even a thin sauce - into the mouth without leaving traces.

In Uganda for example, only the upper portions of the fingers should be involved in eating, and there should be no evidence of the meal afterwards. One should be able to walk away after the meal without anyone noticing anything.

A common and special ritual as part of hospitality in many parts of Africa is to bring the guests warm water to the table before and after the meal to wash their hands. Even where guests have the possibility of washing their hands at the sink, this ritual persists, probably because there is something very giving, very generous about serving a guest in this way.

Making good Ugali, or a variation thereof, has always been a litmus test for women all over Africa. Well-made Ugali takes skill and long practice to make. Well-made Ugali must be smooth and lump-free, without burning. Various levels of stiffness are desirable in various communities.

The Kalenjin of western Kenya, for example, prefer a softer Ugali to eat with their Murzik, while the Luo of western Kenya prefer a stiffer Ugali to eat with fish or vegetables.

Among the people of northern Uganda, the test for well-made kuon kal - Ugali made from millet flour - is that if a lump of it is thrown against the walls of a hut it will not stick, much the same way the Italians say al dente spaghetti does not stick to the wall!

Africans have been known to complain against their Ugali, especially when they cannot afford anything else, such as chapati or cooked banana. Ugali is, after all, a cheap and filling dish. In Uganda, for example, it is a staple in boarding schools and correctional institutions.

The same Africans, however, have been known to clamour for Ugali even when they can afford something better!

Ugali. The great silent common cultural denominator across Africa.

Ugali plays an unexpected supporting role in Lamaro Schoenleber's new full-length memoirs; Sauerkraut in Odii - add love to taste, available at available right away!

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Tuesday, July 24, 2012

What is Irio?

What Is Irio?

By Lamaro Schoenleber

There are so many culinary secrets in African cuisine that have remained largely undiscovered by the general world population. Indeed, African cuisine is probably the last frontier remaining for world cuisine.

[caption id="attachment_65" align="aligncenter" width="300"]What Is Irio? What Is Irio?[/caption]

What is Irio?

It is the Kikuyu work for food. Irio has such a central place in Kikuyu cuisine, that it defines the word food. Irio is also referred to as mukimo - mashed food.

The Kikuyu are the largest tribe in Kenya. They are Bantus, which implies they traditionally depended on agriculture.

The Kikuyus grew sweet potatoes, vegetables, beans, and more recently maize and Irish potatoes. Although many of the Kikuyu are now involved in various professions, businesses and industry, agriculture is still a favourite occupation.

Irio, or mukimo, is what you prepare for special occasions. You start by boiling maize and beans - usually red kidney beans - together till they are ready. Shortly after the harvest, or during the rainy season, fresh maize and beans are plentiful. Later, dried maize and beans, which obviously take longer to cook, will have to do.

Irish potatoes are then added to the maize and beans. Shortly before the potatoes are ready, one may add fresh pumpkin leaves. Then mash everything together. The result is a tasty, nutritious green mash which can be served with meat stew.

That, is Irio.

For occasions such as weddings, a goat may be slaughtered for the goat meat stew to accompany the irio.

An older type of mukimo is prepared with sweet potatoes, which was already a staple before the introduction of Irish potatoes. Irio prepared without pumpkin leaves and beans has a rich yellow colour. Sometimes fresh green peas substitute for the beans.

A very special irio served at weddings is prepared with ripe bananas and black white-eye beans rather than with potatoes and kidney beans.

Sometimes for a wedding, neighbours and relatives bring different types of irio as their gift or contribution.

Irio is the luxury version of an everyday Kikuyu dish, githeri. Githeri is simply maize and beans cooked together. A variation of githeri is fresh maize and green peas.

In times of plenty, githeri is cooked with fresh maize and beans or peas harvested just that day. The githeri can be fried with onions, carrots, strips of cabbage and bits of meat - a nutritious meal all in one plate.

During hard times, githeri is plain dried maize and beans boiled together, a meal which fulfills the basic nutritional needs, till better times arrive.

When one can make irio.

Irio, another of the well-kept culinary secrets in African cuisine.

Irio gets an emotional mention in Lamaro Schoenleber's new full-length memoirs; Sauerkraut in Odii - add love to taste, available right away at!

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What is Luwombo?

What Is Luwombo?

By Lamaro Schoenleber

There are so many culinary secrets and delicacies in African cuisine, which have not yet been discovered by the rest of the world. Indeed, African cuisine is probably the last frontier in world cuisine. One such secret is: Luwombo.

[caption id="attachment_61" align="aligncenter" width="300"]What is Luwombo? What is Luwombo?[/caption]

What is Luwombo?

In luwombo, the central role is played, not by the ingredients, but by the banana leaves in which they are prepared.

Luwombo is a dish prepared by the Baganda people of southern Uganda. The Baganda are the largest tribe in Uganda. The country - Uganda - is named after them, as is their language, Luganda.

Central to the cuisine of the Baganda is the preparation of food in banana leaves. Indeed, the luscious, refreshing green of banana leaves waving in numerous banana plantations is a hallmark of southern Uganda, where the ultimate life dream is to build a house and plant a banana plantation around it.

To cook luwombo, you place meat or fish, together with onions, tomatoes, vegetables and a little oil in clean banana leaves. It takes some skill to wrap it all up and tie it with banana rind, without losing any liquid.

Hacked banana tree stumps are then placed in a large saucepan or pot, and covered with water. The parcels of luwombo are arranged carefully onto the banana stumps, so that they can be steamed without being boiled.

Luwombo is best served in the banana leaves, where it remains hot, and retains the very distinct taste lent by the banana leaves. Many eating-houses now serve versions of luwombo also in aluminium foil, but it does not quite taste the same.

Luwombo is best served with matoke - the mashed cooking banana central to Baganda cuisine - cooked in a similar way to luwombo.Luwombo is best eaten with the fingers, in true African style.

Luwombo draws attention to the cooking methods common to African cuisine. Luwombo refers to food steamed in banana leaves. The Baganda also steam cooking bananas and other dishes.

Steaming is recognized by many cooking experts as an extremely healthy and highly-recommended method of cooking.

The Acholi of northern Uganda, to whose cooking odii is central, mostly boil their food, before adding odii - the only fat of any sort they add to their cooking.

In many African communities, food is also roasted - sweet potatoes, cassava, various types of banana, fresh maize, meat and fish.

Many staples are also boiled in water - sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, cassava, bananas, maize and Ugali - which is four cooked in boiling water.

In general, African cuisine employs healthy, time-honoured cooking methods such as steaming, boiling and roasting, In recent times, frying, broiling and baking have also been adopted, but they often remain guest methods.

Read more in Lamaro Schoenleber's new full-length memoirs; Sauerkraut in Odii - add love to taste, available at right away!

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What is IFRS?

What Is IFRS?

By Silvia Mahutova

So, what is IFRS? Why does everybody talk about it? Why do we need it? And who uses it?

IFRS is an acronym for International Financial Reporting Standards. It is a set of principles and regulations for reporting many different operations in the financial statements.

Very much like USA uses US GAAP, Canada uses its own Canadian GAAP, Great Britain applies UK GAAP etc., the whole world will use its global GAAP - IFRS.

[caption id="attachment_57" align="aligncenter" width="300"]What Is IFRS? What Is IFRS?[/caption]

Why do we need IFRS?

Today, everything on the globe comes closer than ever before. All things are harmonizing and people study how to behave globally.

And really, it is clear in each move you make - it is possible to purchase the same products in any location, you can find similar meals in "Jack in the box" anywhere in the world and it is also possible to fly wherever on earth within one day.

Accounting together with financial reporting is not any exception. That is where IFRS has its own position - it will act as a harmonized group of regulations with respect to financial reporting around the globe.

Do you know the primary benefit of IFRS?

Here, in the globalizing planet, the crucial idea is the ability to compare.

Picture yourself as the owner of multinational company who wants to examine economic outcomes of your organizations from various areas. But - every single area applies its own bookkeeping guidelines!

Let's say that revenues are reported on accrual basis in some area, and on cash basis in a different location. How can you know which of your organizations reaches nicer revenues when these results are incomparable?

Or possibly, you are a tiny investor acting in the stock market. Investors usually review financial reports of their potential shares prior to buying. How can you read all the documents when everybody reports differently?

You get the understanding. IFRS gives us harmonized guidelines for bookkeeping and presenting the financial information, so that everybody understands financial reports from any place in the world. And not only this - if some corporation tries to get abroad funding or enter the stock exchange, it should prepare its financial reports in line with IFRS.

What countries present their financial statements according to IFRS?

Currently, more than 120 countries follow IFRS, some of them entirely, a few of them partially. In ideal case, IFRS should be implemented globally by 2015.

In fact, undoubtedly one of the key participants in the worldwide economy, the USA continues to use their own US GAAP. Under this circumstance, US GAAP and IFRS will converge and also gradually reduce dissimilarities. The IFRS convergence process should have been completed until 2012.

But, FASB (setter of US GAAP) and IASB (setter of IFRS) slowed up the convergence progress and latest due date is approximately 2015. Additionally, SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) should have decided with regards to inclusion of IFRS for U.S. companies by the end of 2011, but the decision has been postponed by several months.

You can find helpful information, examples and free e-book about IFRS at - a site dedicated to online IFRS training: helping accountants, chief financial officers, finance students and anyone interested in understanding IFRS and its application in their daily job.

Silvia Mahutova, FCCA

Silvia is a founder of - the site helping accountants, financial analysts, chief financial officers and other interested people to understand IFRS and gain deeper knowledge about it.

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What is CELTA?

What Is CELTA?

By Robert Wages

CELTA stands for Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults. The main reason why this is a great step towards your success is because it is widely accept in several countries across the globe. It will prep you up so that you are geared with the necessary English knowledge that will put you ahead of everyone else.

[caption id="attachment_53" align="aligncenter" width="300"]What Is CELTA? What Is CELTA?[/caption]

Which Countries Demand CELTA Certificates?

Among the countries which have high demand for individuals with CELTA are England or Wales. These spots require their teachers to have high educational attainment because they try to keep excellent standards when it comes to teaching their students. You will also find great teaching opportunities in Australia. However, if you work in Australia, you might need to adapt to their curriculum which is leaning more on British English.

If you would like to work in Asia, among the countries that you can choose from are Thailand, Japan, South Korea and Middle Eastern countries. The culture in these countries may be significantly different from Western countries but when you go through CELTA, you would find it easier to adapt and become a bit more flexible when it comes to teaching methods.

Taking CELTA Courses

There are plenty of options when it comes to institutions which offer CELTA. There are universities and learning centers which have acquired certification to provide the courses. Hence, before you enrol, make sure that the school is legal and accredited. CELTA is offered online too. You will be sent with educational materials and you would need to spend time on online courses.

The entire CELTA course usually takes about four weeks. However, there are others which may be a bit longer. That is because the courses are provided on shorter time to give chance to those who already have a day job and would like to acquire further teaching knowledge.

CELTA also involves teaching hours. This means that you would be handling classes and your performance would be monitored by supervisors to be able to determine if you are ready to be certified.

Why You Need a CELTA?

In many countries, CELTA is required before you are even considered for the teaching position. So, when you got this, you can significantly increase your chance to get your dream job.

CELTA will enable you to discover the most effective teaching techniques. Even if your students are no longer kids, you wouldn't find it difficult to enrich their knowledge and you know exactly which methods will work for them.

Since CELTA also involves actual training, you would be more prepared in handling adult classes or one-on-one sessions. Strategizing and planning your daily lessons would be easier too.

Teachers are sometimes apprehensive to handle adult classes because they get intimidated by their students. With CELTA, you can get over this kind of problem because the training will help you be more confident about the skills and knowledge that you have.

For more information about the CELTA exam and ESL Jobs, please visit ESL Empoyer.

ESL Employer is the #1 source for English teaching news, community, and jobs. For more information, please visit:

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What is Depression?

What Is Depression?

By Mark P Dybing

Depression is a mental illness that causes psychological distress to the person suffering from it. It is generally described as a lowering of mood for a period of two weeks or more. This impairment can cause the victim much loss of normal physical and mental functioning and can be triggered at any time. There are causes such as distressing life events that are thought to trigger depression. Depression can fall into a number of categories depending on symptoms present. It can affect anyone at any stage in their life and does not discriminate against race, gender or socio-economic status.

[caption id="attachment_38" align="aligncenter" width="361"]What Is Depression? What Is Depression?[/caption]

Depression can be triggered by a life event. Depending on the nature of the life event, the length of time that the depression lasts for can be longer than 2 weeks, with some episodes taking longer than 8 months to resolve. Many life events can cause a depressive episode such as relationship difficulties, financial problems and health issues. The risk factors involved with depression are correlated with increased chance of suffering an episode, so its important to educate the public and bring awareness to individuals.

Being a psychological disorder depression affects the mind, and thus can affect a person's ability to function effectively in society. Depression can have take on three distinct forms, often going unnoticed by people not suffering from the disorder. Depression can affect a persons cognitive abilities, work performance and ability to socialise with others. Loss of interest in activities is also common which before the onset of the depression gave much pleasure, and the withdrawal of pleasure from these activities is a sure marker that something may be wrong.

The seriousness of depression can be dependent on many factors. A persons genetic history is a strong indicator, and if any family members have been diagnosed then the chances of depression are increased. The biological make-up of an individual also plays its part, with some people more prone to depressive episodes purely because of individual biology. Socio-economic factors such as lower incomes, drug and alcohol abuse and social isolation and vulnerability all play a role.

Depression affects both men and women, all ethnicities and adults and children. 1 in 4 women will experience depression, while 1 in 6 men will go through an episode at some point in their life. Due to the stigma and the taboo nature of depression, this mental disorder has gone relatively unnoticed in the past. With help from media attention it is now receiving much needed public attention.

There are three major types of depression that are diagnosed by mental health professionals.

Non-melancholic depression or clinical depression:

This is the most common form of depression. The nature of non-melancholic depression is thought to be psychological in origin, which is in stark difference to the other less well known and rare forms of this mental illness. This is a difficult form to diagnose as the boundaries of its symptoms are not well defined as opposed to the two other forms of depression which are discussed next.
Some common symptoms of clinical depression are:

- a depressed mood extending for a period of more than two weeks

- loss of interest in activities they were previously pleasurable

- low, miserable and/or sad feelings remaining through-out the day

The second less well known, and even less diagnosed form is melancholic depression. This form in contrast with clinical depression has its origins in biological factors. Individuals suffering from this illness are a minority with only 1 - 2% being diagnosed.
Common symptoms are:

- severe sleep disturbance

- marked changes in appetite and weight gain or loss

- changes in cognitive performance such as memory, concentration and problem solving.

- distinct loss of pleasure from activities that were previously found to be pleasurable

The third form is psychotic depression which is the most rare form of depression and is characterised by symptoms that share similarities with severe clinical depression and schizophrenia including:

- extreme depressed mood and loss of interest in pleasurable past-times

- hallucinations, psycho-motor problems and delusional thinking

- severe sleep disturbances

Depression is a wide-spread mental illness that may be affecting a loved one, friend or work colleague. On outward appearances it may be hard to tell if someone is suffering from depression. Certain risk factors are responsible for determining if a person will suffer from depression with women being at higher risk than men. If you are the one suffering, then hopefully this guide has given you an insight into what it is you may be experiencing. Take hope that treatments are available and many are discussed in articles on this site.

Depression is curable. Learn effective depression treatments today and say goodbye to the moody blues.

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Monday, July 23, 2012

What is Philosophy?

What Is Philosophy?

By Robert A Sopher

"What is Philosophy?" is an easy question to ask but philosophy is not something that is very easy to define. Literally it means "the love of knowledge" but this fails to capture much of the sense of the word. In many ways philosophy is about questioning and understanding the world but also it is about how we view the world. By using the methods and process of philosophy and by learning to love the search for knowledge we can find some of the worth and meaning of philosophy. Nothing else is quite as important and as overlooked as philosophical thought.

[caption id="attachment_35" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What Is Philosophy? What Is Philosophy?[/caption]

As a field philosophy is unique. Rather than building on its self like most realms of study, the history of philosophy and philosophy its self are one and the same. Philosopher's works are very rarely are usurped by more modern text; instead modern text seek to understand and interpret the works of past philosophers and, if refinements are present they are found more commonly as alternatives rather than replacements. Throughout this long history philosophy has had thinker that were more influential than others. Plato, Aristotle,Thomas Aquinas, Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon, Spinoza, Locke, Hume, Kant, Rousseau, and Nietzsche are perhaps some of the most important philosophers. These men and women have contributed and advanced many thoughts and ideas to a variety of fields of philosophy and to this day much of their work is study and analyzed by modern philosophers.

Another thing philosophy is know for is having a lot of "-isms". It is true that philosophers have created many terms to categorize and describe their philosophy, in many ways the archaic terminology is necessary to cover the breadth of ideas philosophers yield. To cover the most important ones briefly:

  • Skepticism - The philosophy and practice of doubting. Typical doubts include Epistemological skepticism, Moral Skepticism and Religious

  • Empiricism - The philosophy that people learn only by experiencing the world.

  • Rationalism - The philosophy that at least some things are knowable outside of experience

  • Idealism - The philosophy that the world exists only as thought or in someones mind

  • Materialism - The philosophy that in some sense a physical world does exist

Others include Existentialism, Aesthetics and Aestheticism, Realism, Pragmatism and Positivism.

Philosophy is also typically divided in two main ways: by area of study, and whether the philosophy is analytic or continental. The primary fields of study within philosophy are typically broken down into the following 4 groups:

  • Metaphysics - the philosophical study of being,

  • Epistemology - the philosophical study of knowledge,

  • Ethics and Aesthetics - the philosophical study of value, and

  • Logic - the philosophical study of correct reasoning.

Each of the fields has evolved greatly over its history and contains many niches and nuances unique to it. The bigger difference is in the analytic vs. continental divide. The difference is complicated but to put it simply: Analytic philosophy focuses on on logic and rigor and is typical of the English speaking world, where as Continental philosophy is usually done on Continental Europe and covers, with much less rigor, a very wide variety of philosophers.

I guess to fully answer what philosophy is in a few short sentences might be impossible.Philosophy covers, at least to some extent, all areas of human knowledge and any kind of definition you would give to it would far from do the subject justice. To truly understand the spirit of philosophy nothings helps more than learning, thinking, and philosophizing. To quote Plato - "Wonder is the feeling of the philosopher, and philosophy begins in wonder."

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What is CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) ?

What Is CBT?

By Mark P Dybing

What is CBT?

CBT, or cognitive behavioural therapy is a psychotherapeutic e.g. (treatment) approach to helping people fix emotional, cognitive and behavioural dysfunctions. A trained medical professional helps a patient to restore their quality of life using CBT, to change a patients thought processes, coping responses and behaviours.

[caption id="attachment_31" align="aligncenter" width="343"]What Is CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) ? What Is CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) ?[/caption]

How does CBT work?

CBT works by replacing undesirable thinking patterns with patterns of thinking that help the individual to cope with their problems. Thinking patterns such as over generalisation, magnifying negative thinking, and minimising positives are all examples of destructive thought patterns.

What techniques does CBT use:

CBT practitioners use a number of techniques:

Exposure and response reduction therapy - exposure to a stressor such as dirt in an individual that fears dirt, and then helping them to manage that stress response. This is relevant to people with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Stress inoculation (meaning that the individual is more resilient to stress)

Cognitive therapy (therapy aimed at memory, thinking skills, problem solving and decision making)

Acceptance and commitment therapy

The process of undertaking CBT:

1. Assessment - A qualified medical professional prescribes an examination to determine the best treatment plan.

2. Conceptualisation - re-framing the problem issues in a different way.

3. Learning new skills such as self-talk, exposure response, relaxation techniques and minimising negative thinking.

4. Skills consolidation and application training - Learning to apply the skills in practise and then using them in the real world. E.g.: talking to a stranger or attending a social event.

5. Generalisation and maintenance

6. Post-treatment assessment follow-up

What disorders does CBT treat?

Depression, anxiety, body issues, mood, personality and psychotic disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders, psychosis, substance abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder.

Who would benefit from CBT?

All people of different races, genders and ages can benefit from CBT.

How does CBT relate to depression

CBT is one of a number of effective treatments for clinical depression. It is used to change the negative views that depressed individuals have created for themselves during childhood as a response to stressful life events. These individuals benefit greatly from CBT, because it addresses these negative mechanisms and helps to adjust the thinking so that patient can return to healthy, positive and adaptive thinking.

CBT and anxiety disorders

CBT has been widely documented to help all anxiety disorders.

What happens during CBT?

CBT is undertaken with the help of a qualified medical professional such as a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist.

Why should you use CBT?

CBT is an approach to restoring people to positive psychological states of well-being. The obvious benefit of doing this is the restored quality of life that will be enjoyed by the individual seeking treatment. Quality of life will be reflected in improved self-esteem, less stress, better coping mechanisms, improved social skills and better work performance.

When is the best time to use CBT?

CBT can be used at any time that symptoms of mood disorders, personality disorders, mental illness, substance abuse or generally unwanted psychological states of distress are noticed.

CBT is a non-invasive, non-medication form of therapy that aims to help an individual change negative belief systems, problem behaviours and destructive ways of dealing with mental issues. With the help of a trained medical professional, CBT can be used to help with any number of mental illnesses and help restore an individuals quality of life.

CBT is an effective method of treatment for depression. Learn more effective techniques to beat depression today.

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What is Urban Planning?

What Is Urban Planning?

By Rene W

What is urban planning? Urban planning is an aspect of landscape architecture that is concerned with the control of the use of land and design of the urban environment, including transportation networks, to guide and ensure the orderly development of communities. It concerns itself with the potentials and problems of urban areas relate to the built environment and its underlying social, economic, political, and legal structure and related public policies. Research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, policy recommendations, implementation and management are expected within this field.

[caption id="attachment_27" align="aligncenter" width="600"]What Is Urban Planning? What Is Urban Planning?[/caption]

The modern origins of urban planning lie in the movement for urban reform that arose as a reaction against the disorder of the industrial city in the mid-19th century. Urban planning can include urban renewal, by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from decline. In the late-20th century the term sustainable development has come to represent an ideal outcome in the sum of all planning goals. It concerns itself with research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations, implementation and management.

An urban design can take a variety of forms including: strategic plans, comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, or historic preservation. Planners are often also responsible for enforcing the chosen policies. An urban planner must be able to deal with both short and long range planning and projects at various scales.

What started as industrial cities in the mid-19th century has quickly turned into design sustainable developments that adhere to health and safety regulations for the masses. While there are many professionals who specialize in either fixing issues in existing developments or designing new ones, urban planning is usually executed by a group of individuals with specific skills and backgrounds. To be a part of this growing field, one must attend an urban planning school.

The years ahead promise new developments and challenges to the ever-broadening profession. So how does one get started pursuing this must needed profession? First you need to look into landscape architecture programs from the renowned landscape architecture schools that offer fully accredited landscape architecture degrees. A graduate degree in landscape design or work equivalent is required in order to obtain a landscape architecture license. And going to one of the top landscape architecture schools could ensure a bright future of urban designing planning ahead of you! Don't wait on it, take charge of your own career choice and start today with urban designing and planning!

Obtaining a degree from a well-known and accredited landscape architecture schools that offers fully accredited landscape architecture degrees is of the utmost importance for getting started in urban planning.

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Saturday, July 21, 2012

What is the Ajax Enabled Google Tool-Kit?

What is the Ajax Enabled Google Tool-Kit?

By Munish Dev

First things first, Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) is not a technology. AJAX is a technique that has brought about a great change in the world of web development.

[caption id="attachment_22" align="aligncenter" width="485"]What is the Ajax Enabled Google Tool-Kit? What is the Ajax Enabled Google Tool-Kit?[/caption]

The AJAX technique comes in response to the increasing demand of interactive web applications. With AJAX, web page exchange small amount of data with the server behind the scene. This means that every time a new piece of data is entered by the user, or there is a request for a change, the entire page does not have to be reloaded. Usability is also greatly affected thanks to AJAX. After all, AJAX creates conditions that are conducive to a complex scenario that is both data-centric and user-centric. The difference between web pages and other applications has been thinned down with the help of AJAX.

As already mentioned, AJAX is not a technology and this technique fuses together various existing technologies such as XHTML (or HTML), CSS, the DOM, XMLHttpRequest (or alternatively IFrame), XML.

Here is how these individual technologies play a role in AJAX:

o XHTML (or HTML) and CSS are used for mark up and styling information.

o The DOM (Document Object Model) is employed for the actual interaction that happens with the information that is presented.

o The exchange of data asynchronously with the web server happens with the use of XMLHttpRequest. Although there are many cases where an IFrame object is used in its place.

o Even though even preformatted HTML would work, XML is the format often used for the transfer of data between the server and the client.

The advantages and disadvantages of using AJAX are in fact open for interpretation. Here are some of the reasons that are cited as advantages of using AJAX.

o The main reason for using AJAX is to enhance the user experience, and to make web pages behave more like standalone applications.

o AJAX enabled pages load faster because it generates HTML within the browser. The net result of the page loading in a staggered manner is the bandwidth consumption for a web page is considerably reduced.

o The third advantage is widely critiqued because of a common misconception about AJAX - that it is a mix n' match of various techniques, not leaving room for any consistency. Yet with AJAX programmers tend to create a distinct separation between the methods and formats that are employed for the purpose of information delivery. In other words separation between the content that is to be delivered, the structure and style elements of the webpage, and the functionality of the webpage.

On the flip side are the disadvantages that people associate with the use of AJAX.

o Given that, with AJAX, the page does not register with the history engine of the browser, the user is often unable to use the 'Back' function of the browser. Additionally, AJAX also makes it difficult for users to 'Bookmark' a page at a certain stage of us. The solutions created to tackle these problems have not been adequate, and these issues remain unresolved for the most part.

o The possible delay between user request and server response, is an obvious drawback of AJAX. This lag, known as network latency is made worse by a phenomenon that has nothing to with the technologies involved. When a page is rendered in entirety the human eye naturally re-adjusts itself to identifying the changed elements of refreshed page. On the other hand, when smaller portions of the page are rendered individually the user may not see the change immediately and imagine latency when it in fact does not exist.

o Another possible problem is that search engines cannot execute the JavaScript that is a part of the AJAX functionality. It is important to note that this particular problem is not restricted to AJAX.

o Yet another issue with AJAX is compatibility. JavaScript, which AJAX depends on, may be implemented differently by different browsers.

At the face of it, the disadvantages seem to weigh over the advantages making AJAX seem a less viable option for developers. There is no doubt that AJAX is complex, and there are still not many developers who are acquainted with its language. Yet a change has been brought about with Google slotting AJAX in their applications.

Google's move is a landmark event in the web development arena. Google applied compilers to help them carry out this mammoth task. Compilers give developers the chance to code/develop in a higher-level language, which it converts to a lower-level language which the computer understands. A Java to JavaScript compiler was created so that developers could work in the former and leave it to the compiler to convert the same into the latter. This technology was freely shared with the developer community and is known as the Google Web Toolkit (GWT).

The GWT development cycle is rather straightforward:

1. Use Java to design, develop, debug, and test. In this process you may or may not choose to employ GWT libraries that seem of use. You are free to use any of the Java tools that you feel comfortable with - Eclipse, IntelliJ, JProfiler, JUnit.

2. Use the GWT's compiler that distills the application from Java to a set of JavaScript and HTML files which can work with any web sever.

3. Ensure compatibility of the application with the browsers you want to support.

GWT can be run in two modes - hosted mode and web mode.

Hosted mode: Most of the development time ordinarily would be spent in this mode because since your application is run as Java byte code within the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), you can have the benefit of employing the debugging facilities in Java.

Web mode: In this mode, the application is run as pure JavaScript and HTML

If AJAX is meant to ease the surfing experience of users, GWT is meant to ease the process of developing to the farthest possible limit. And GWT has made it easy for developers to use AJAX for creating applications. For instance, common errors that occur with JavaScript such as typos and type mismatches can be identified at the time of compilation. There is often a conflict between what is easy for developers to do, and what is beneficial for users. This conflict, needless to say must end in the favor of what is beneficial for users. And the net result of using GWT and making things more convenient for developers would of course a better web experience for users.

The main features of the Google Web Toolkit are:

o Even though, unlike traditional HTML web applications, GWT applications do not need to fetch new HTML pages as they execute, they do in fact need to get data from the server. Also referred to as a server call, this mechanism is better known as Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and enables interaction with the server across a network.

o The presence of dynamic and reusable UI (User Interface) frameworks. The key difference between UI frameworks in GWT in comparison to others is the way widgets (Java classes on the client-side that are used to build user interface) are rendered.

o Full-featured debugging in the hosted mode.

o Allows for the appropriate management of browser history.

o Automatic compatibility with different browsers is yet another attractive feature of GWT applications.

o Yet another feature of the GWT is that it helps you internationalize your applications and libraries.

o GWT allows you to unit test in a debugger and browser.

o With the help of the JavaScript Native Interface (JSNI) you can add handwritten JavaScript in the Java code.

o The most important feature of the GWT is the fact that it is completely open source code.

For the uninitiated, all this sounds too technical. But the very purpose of GWT is to extract developers from the web of technicalities and give them space to create something that speaks with their end-user. And the demand for interactive spaces online is only going to increase. The AJAX trend is catching up and thanks to GWT developers are able to slowly but surely get over their initial apprehensions about the difficulties that AJAX poses. The role of developers in the development life cycle of a web application cannot be undermined, but with AJAX enabled GWT their role actually ceases to be just that of typing together back-end operations. Google Maps is an excellent example of the advantages of working with AJAX within the GWT framework. Google map is definitive example of something that is dynamic, attractive and completely user-friendly. Finding locations and using functionalities such as zoom in/out instantaneously is a tremendous advancement. Imagine, having to interminably wait for the page to reload when you click on a location or search for it in the search bar? The very purpose of having the map would be defeated, if it was going to take just as much time to look for a specific location online as it would on a printed map. There are some detractors who say

AJAX enabled GWT is the practical way forward. End-users hardly take this for granted, but the work that goes behind creating this ultimate user-experience pays off. And indeed, GWT has made ease of development possible without losing out on user-satisfaction. With techniques like AJAX, and systems like GWT the future of web development is one that holds a lot of promise for users and developers alike!

Munish Dev Rathee is a SEO cum content writer associated with a seo Services company []

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What is SSL (the "little padlock")?

What is SSL (the "little padlock")?

By Chuck Lawson

SSL ("Secured Socket Layer") is a protocol used to encrypt the communication between the user's browser and the web server. When SSL is active, a "little padlock" appears on the user's browser, usually in the status line at the bottom (at the top for Mac/Safari users.)

[caption id="attachment_17" align="aligncenter" width="271"]What is SSL (the "little padlock")? What is SSL (the "little padlock")?[/caption]

This assures the user that sensitive data (such as credit card numbers) can't be viewed by anyone "sniffing" the network connection (which is an increasing risk as more people use wireless networking).

Common web site owner questions about SSL:

How do I get the little padlock on my site?

To get the little padlock, your site must have an SSL Certificate from a Certificate Authority. Once an SSL Certificate has been purchased and installed, it provides three things:

  1. The ability to show a page in "Secure Mode", which encrypts the traffic between the browser and the server, as indicated by the "little padlock" on the user's browser.

  2. A guarantee by the issuing Certificate Authority that the domain name the certificate was issued for is indeed owned by the specific company or individual named in the certificate (visible if the user clicks on the little padlock).

  3. An assurance that the domain name the certificate was issued for is the domain name the user's browser is now on.

Once obtained, the certificate must be installed on the web server by your web host. Since your web host also has to generate an initial cypher key to obtain the certificate, very often they will offer to handle the process of obtaining the certificate for you.

My web host has a "shared certificate" that I can use. Should I?

It's still fairly common for small sites to use a shared certificate from the host. In this circumstance, when a page needs to be shown in secured mode, the user is actually sent to a domain owned by the web host, and then back to the originating domain afterwards.

A few years ago, when SSL Certificates were quite expensive (around $400 per year), this was real attractive for new sites just getting their feet wet in e-commerce. Today, with a number of perfectly functional SSL certificates available for under $100 (exclusive of installation, etc.), it is a lot less attractive. Since your user can look a the address line of his or her web browser and see that the site asking for the credit card number is not the site he or she thought they were on, the cost savings is probably not worth the risk of scaring off a sale.

What's the difference between the expensive SSL Certificates and the inexpensive ones?

Usually, mostly price. Some expensive certificates have specific functions, like securing a number of different subdomains simultaneously (a "wildcard" certificate), but the effective differences between basic single site certificates are very slight, despite the wide range of prices:

The encryption mechanism used by all of them is the same, and most use the same key length (which is an indicator of the strength of the encryption) common to most browsers (128 bit).

Some of them ("chained root" certificates) are slightly more of a pain for your web host to install than others ("single root" certificates), but this is pretty much invisible to the site owner.

The amount of actual checking on the ownership of the domain varies wildly between vendors, with some (usually the more expensive) wanting significant documentation (like a D&B number), and others handling it with an automated phone call ("press #123 if you've just ordered a certificate").

Some of them offer massive monetary guarantees as to their security (we'll pay you oodles of dollars if someone cracks this code), but since it's all the same encryption mechanism, if someone comes up with a crack, all e-commerce sites will be scrambling, and the odds of that vendor actually having enough cash to pay all of its customers their oodle is probably slim.

The fact is that you are buying the certificate to insure the safety of the user's data, and to make the user confident that his or her data is secure. For the vast majority of users, simply having the little padlock show up is all they are looking for. There are exceptions (I have a client in the bank software business, and they feel that their customers (bank officers) are looking for a specific premier name on the SSL certificate, so are happy to continue using the expensive one), but most e-commerce customers do not pick their sellers based on who issued their SSL Certificates.

My advice is to buy the cheaper one.

I have an SSL certificate -- why shouldn't I serve all my pages in "Secured" mode?

Because SSL has an overhead -- more data is sent with a page that is encrypted than a page that isn't. This translates to your site appearing to run slower, particularly for users who are on dial-up or other slow connections. Since this also increases the total amount of data transferred by your site, if your web host charges by transfer volume (or has an overage fee, as most do), this can increase the size of your monthly hosting bill.

The server should go into secure mode when asking a user for financial or other sensitive data (which may well be "name, address and phone number", with today's risk of identity theft), and operate in normal mode otherwise.

Updates to this article, and many other great articles and tutorials for small business web site owners can be found at Insanely Great Sites!

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