Wednesday, October 31, 2012

What is Automated Translation?

What is Automated Translation?


Language is foundational to an enterprise's longevity and success in today's global market. The first concern of any enterprise looking to expand its global footprint must revolve around how to utilize language technology and use this innovation to communicate their corporate services and products. One of the most important obstacles in global communication is the lexical differences in languages. Hence, language translation is necessary for communicating in foreign languages. Unless and until the foreign customers infer the meaning of the marketing messages correctly, there is less than one percent chance of their buying it. Therefore, in order to gain foothold in foreign markets, enterprises need to translate content into different languages in near real time. This is easily possible through automated translation. But, what is automated translation?

[caption id="attachment_1105" align="aligncenter" width="630"]What is Automated Translation? What is Automated Translation?[/caption]

Automated translation is the translation of text by a computer, with no human involvement. Pioneered in the 1950's, automated translation is also referred to as machine translation, automatic translation, or instant translation. Automated translation helps enterprises to communicate with customers in the right channel, in the right language and at the right time.

Automation translation systems are of two types namely,rule-based and statistical. A rule-based system uses a combination of language and grammar rules, together with dictionaries of common words to generate a translation.

While statistical systems learn rules automatically by analyzing large amounts of data for each language combination. These systems can be trained for specific industries or companies using additional data relevant to the domain.

Automated translation delivers benefits in several ways:

Accelerates Human Translation Productivity - It speeds up human translation productivity by providing an initial translation for human post-editing to deliver translated content faster.

Improves Customer Service and Satisfaction -It makes content easily accessible to global customers to improve customer service and satisfaction – with on-demand translation of support knowledge base content, cross-language chat, and multilingual email support.

Supports More Languages in Quick Time - It helps to grow revenue from new markets by supporting more languages in quick time.

Enhances Employee Collaboration - It improves employee collaboration by helping employees understand non-native language communication (like emails, documents and websites) through a general ('gist') translation.

Thus, automated translation accelerates global communication to support new market expansion, deliver a positive customer experience, and enable instant access to information in a user's preferred language.

The internet driven technological revolution has altered the way businesses function and have left a deep impact on the global economy. With more tech-savvy customers to serve, business enterprises are faced by challenges to meet the expectation of every individual customer so as to stay successful and relevant within the globally competitive landscape.

Languages are the medium of communication and translation is the process of communicating the meaning of a source language text to a target language text. Translation came into existence after written literature came into use and human translators with their spill-over of source language idiom and usage play a major role in the way most of the languages have been shaped.

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What is Plyometric Training?

What is Plyometric Training?

Author:Dennis Blair

Plyometric training is a method of training that is specifically developed for athletes to improve performance. Plyometric training is high intensity training. High intensity is a set of exercises that pushes your body to the max, making heart rate go up and to burn a lot of calories. Plyometric training is basically developed so you can jump higher, run faster or even throw farther.

[caption id="attachment_1103" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is Plyometric Training? What is Plyometric Training?[/caption]


Plyometric training is an essential part of an athlete's life. It is utilized by those athletes that play high intensity sports or sports that require regular movements. These athletes need power in order to be at the top of their game. Two examples of sports that utilize this training are runners that compete in the 100m dash or athletes that do the hammer throw. The athlete that competes in the 100m dash needs a lot of speed and strength to complete that race. The hammer throw athlete requires a lot of strength in order to throw that hammer farther. This is what plyometric does; it increases an athlete ability to perform. It develops strength, speed, stamina and overall power. The development could be utilized in swimming, throwing, running, jumping or any other sports activity out there. Here are the main benefits:

  • It burns calories; it is unlikely to find a person that engages in plyometric training to be overweight. This is due to the high intensity of the training. In plyometric training, the body is constantly active and needs a fair amount of muscle endurance which is good for burning calories.

  • Increases muscular power; plyometric training is not just simple cardiovascular work. It takes a great deal of power in order to complete a workout. Power requires muscular strength, but unlike regular weight lifting, the muscles not only get stronger, but they are also leaner and better equipped for athletic performances.

  • Muscular endurance; even though weight lifting is good for gaining strength, it does not increase muscular endurance. Muscular endurance is the ability for your muscles to continue working for a longer period of time without getting tired. A sport like football requires muscular endurance because the game is continuous with not too many breaks.

  • It is cheaper that other forms of exercises. Some exercises require bulky equipment and gadgets in order to carry out an exercise. However, plyometric uses a small amount of equipment; in fact sometimes none is needed. This training can use your body to get more benefits in order to increase you performance.

  • Better performance; for those who are actively involved in sports, plyometric can be excellent in order to build performance. It is not just for one specific sport but any sport that requires performance. For example, it helps an American football player jump higher, it can help a track star to run faster and it can also help a boxer to punch harder.

  • The most important part of plyometric is that it is not just for professional athletes as it allows for changes in routines for anyone to manage.

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Dennis Blair is a Fort Collins Personal Trainer whose programs help those in Fort Collins, Colorado lose weight, gain lean muscle tissue and have more energy. You can find out more about these programs by going to Fort Collins Personal Training.

What is The Federal Reserve Bank?

The Federal Reserve Bank – What is it Really?

Author:Tom Genot

The Federal Reserve is one of the largest problems facing America today. The one question many people ask is what does a Federal Government Bank have to do with our nation's problems? For starters it is Federal in name only.

[caption id="attachment_1100" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is The Federal Reserve Bank? What is The Federal Reserve Bank?[/caption]

The Federal Reserve Bank is not part of the US Government. It is actually a privately owned corporation and international bank that was created by Congress in 1913. The passage of the 16th amendment was passed rather shadily, and according to some, illegally. Furthermore it was given the exclusive rights to 'print money' for the U.S. Government by Congress, during the Christmas break in 1913 when most of the representatives were on vacation.

Before the creation of the Federal Reserve the power and responsibility to print our nation's money was done by the Congress of the United States. Sadly since the time when the Federal Reserve was given the power to operate the printing press, the people of America have continually been charged interest on every dollar ever printed. This interest does not go to the Federal Government to benefit Government programs or pay down national debt. It goes directly to the 'cartel banking families' that own the Federal Reserve.

Furthermore the Federal Reserve is responsible for the continuous loss of purchasing power that the dollar has suffered for decades which was done by printing excess money. Since 1971 the US dollar has lost the backing of gold, now it's just created out of thin air. This excess money when added to the Americas money supply 'waters it down' making the total value of the currency weaker so you need more of it to buy something, this is called inflation. Here is the real kicker, the total sum of the United States national debt in all actuality, is the outstanding interest still owed to the Federal Reserve that the American people get stuck paying.

So what does the Federal Reserve do? Well their official roll other than money printing is also to provide a means that will control the amount of money that enters the economy. It is a fine balance that borders between an excess amount of currency creating inflation and not enough creating a recession. The Fed 'when acting responsibly' provides the counter balance to keep inflation and recession in check.

The Federal Reserve is a secretive collection of private banks that have Federal authority. They have no government control or oversight and are accountable to no one for their actions. They pretty much operate in secret keeping the money supply flowing steadily between the exceptionally rich, financial markets, banks and consumers. This is done while they react to both national and international political pressures. The Federal Reserve's meetings are always held in private where decisions are made without any outside input. These decisions ultimately and directly will affect the economic welfare of each person in the nation as a whole.

The Fed also incorporates other mechanisms or tools that can be put to use when necessary. One of the tools that will generate a great deal of attention has to do with the interest rates for banks in particular commercial banks. News of the Federal Reserve changing its interest rates always seems confusing even deceptive to many. However these rates will affect commercial banks which pay the Fed's rate to borrow money thus may or may not directly affect the consumer.

In summary America's biggest problem is actually the Federal Reserve itself. Our congress nearly 100 years ago sold America out by handing over great powers to the corrupt international banking elite, which in-turn have only compromised the well being of our entire economy. It is profit and power first that drive these 'international thieves'. The banking elite are an international group of bankers from several countries and none of them are from America. Therefore they have zero loyalty to American interests nor the American way of life. It is nationalism itself that hinders their business interests.

It was many years ago when one of our founding forefathers actually warned us about the dangers of private banks coming into power. But did we listen?

'If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their money, first by inflation and then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them, will deprive the people of their property until their children will wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.' - Thomas Jefferson

Apparently Not!

Tom Genot -

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About the Author

Informational news, books, articles and videos on investing in gold and silver and where the best places are to buy it. You will also find informational resources to educate you on alternate forms of investing and information on preparedness, for preparing and protecting you, your family and your assets from the pending economic crises and destruction of the US dollar. Author Tom Genot provides information and resources helpful to everyone. Insure you're prepared, while time is still on your side. Check us out at

What is The Difference Between Currency And True Money?

What is The Difference Between Currency And True Money?

Author:Tom Genot

Currency has been defined as a circulating medium of exchange, used as an intermediary in trade, so to avoid the use of a barter system. The benefits and usefulness of currencies include; being a unit of account, or standard measurement of value. Other key factors include; durability, divisibility, ease of transportation and being fungible, or capable of mutual substitution.

[caption id="attachment_1097" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is The Difference Between Currency And True Money? What is The Difference Between Currency And True Money?[/caption]

True Money however, is defined as having all the attributes above, however with one major difference. Money is also a store of true value. Paper currency is actually designed to lose value while true money is designed both to hold and store value. Gold and silver meet these special requirements and have been true money for over 5,000 years, thus they will forever be in demand.

Fiat currency is not true or real money; it only has value because of government regulation or law. The word fiat is actually derived from the Latin word meaning ‘let it be done\'. Thus fiat money is actually established by government decrees. In America, no fiat currency has ever survived more that 40 years, since its start in America, during the days of the Continental Congress, before the Revolutionary War. America\'s current fiat system is the dollar system which started in 1971. It has now in-place over 41 years thus; now it\'s already overdue for failure.

Debasement of currencies is accomplished by nations. Through which, additional fiat money is created then added into the existing nation\'s money supply. Currency debasement is just another fancy word for money expansion. The end result of this expansion, through central bank efforts to debase currencies, always ends up with inflation. The more the paper currency is debased, the greater inflation upon the society becomes. This further drives up the real costs of goods and services, while lowering the purchasing power of the nation\'s currency in real-time.

How can an investor protect oneself from further monetary debasement and inflation? The answer is actually thousands of year\'s old, own gold and silver. Both these monetary metals protect your assets from currency de-basement and because they are real stores of value. They can also protect you from the collapse of currency regardless if it comes from inflation, deflation or the destruction of the paper currency itself, through hyperinflation.

Holding these two precious metals in physical form outside the banking systems of the world, allows you ultimate freedom and complete control. These precious metals also become the best possible insurance for asset protection or hedging that money could ever buy. The biggest reason is due to the unique characteristics these precious metals hold. Always allowing for them to consistently seek their true value, regardless of any economic conditions.

Tom Genot –

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About the Author

Informational news, books, articles and videos on investing in gold and silver and where the best places are to buy it. You will also find informational resources to educate you on alternate forms of investing and information on preparedness, for preparing and protecting you, your family and your assets from the pending economic crises and destruction of the US dollar. Author Tom Genot provides information and resources helpful to everyone. Insure you\'re prepared, while time is still on your side. Check us out at

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

What is Digital Noise? What Causes It?

Digital Noise - What Is It? What Causes It? And How Can I Get Rid Of It?

By Ziv Haparnas

Digital noise in photos taken with digital cameras is random pixels scattered all over the photo. It is a similar effect as "grain" in film photography and it degrades the photo quality.

[caption id="attachment_1094" align="aligncenter" width="650"]What is Digital Noise? What Causes It? What is Digital Noise? What Causes It?[/caption]

Digital noise usually occurs when you take low light photos (such as night photos or indoor dark scenes) or you use very slow shutter speeds or very high sensitivity modes.

When taking pictures with a digital camera an electronic sensor (also known as a CCD) built from many tiny pixels is used to measure the light for each pixel. The result is a matrix of pixels that represent the photo.

As with any other electronic sensor the CCD is not perfect and includes some noise (also know as white noise to hint on its randomness attribute). In most lighting the light is significantly stronger than the noise. However in extreme scenes where the light is very low or when a high amplification is needed noise levels can become significant and result in pixels in the photos that include more noise data than real photo light data. Those pixels usually appear as random dots or stains on the photo (for example white dots scattered randomly on the photo).

Understanding digital noise in various scenes:

low light (night photos or dark scenes): when the scene is dark the amount of light measured by each pixel of the CCD is low. When the light intensity is very low it can become too close to the level of noise naturally found in the CCD. In such cases some pixels can appear as noise because the noise level measured for them is significantly close or higher than the actual light intensity.

slow shutter speeds: when the shutter is kept open for a long time more noise will be introduced to the photo. A slow shutter speed translates to the CCD integrating more light per pixel. The effect can be easily understood as the CCD "accumulating" light in each pixel and measuring the total light over the shutter period of time. However at the same time the CCD is also "accumulating" noise. For that reason in slow shutter speed photos some pixels will appear as noise because for these pixels the amount of noise integrated is significantly close to or higher than the actual light measured.

high sensitivity modes: high sensitivity in digital photography is implemented by mechanisms that result in amplification. The CCD amplifies the measurements it takes. However there is no way to just amplify the actual photo light that falls on the CCD pixels instead the noise and the actual light are both amplified. The result is that the CCD becomes sensitive not only to light but also to its own noise. When too much amplification is applied some pixels will appear as noise.

While it is impossible to completely prevent digital noise there are a few options that allow you to significantly decrease it. When taking photos in low light scenarios such as night photos there are two main parameters to play with: sensitivity and shutter speed. Raising sensitivity creates more internal noise in the CCD while slowing down the shutter allows for more noise to integrate on the CCD. The amount of noise generated by both parameters is different. It is recommended that you set your camera to manual mode and play with a few different sensitivity/shutter speed pairs to find out the one that generates the least noise.

Some cameras include a built-in feature called "noise reduction". Noise reduction is implemented by sophisticated software that can identify the noise pixels and remove them. For example the software can identify the noise pixels based on their randomness and usually extreme intensity gap between them and their neighboring pixels. Removing the noise can be implemented by interpolating a replacement pixel value based on its neighboring pixels.

If you do not have a built-in noise reduction feature or it does not work properly you can use a PC based software that removes digital noise. Many photo processing software include a combination of automatic and manual digital noise removal. Some software packages can also use a few photos of the same object to "average" them and thus remove the noise (relying on the fact that digital noise is random and the noise pixels will be different in each photo taken).

To conclude digital noise should be understood by any amateur or professional photographer. However for most photographers digital noise is not a practical problem even in low light scenarios usually digital noise is minimal and can be significantly reduced by simply turning on your camera's noise reduction feature. For professional photographers who shoot in more extreme conditions digital noise can present a real problem and can be dealt with using a combination of optimizing the camera settings and removing noise with professional software.

Ziv Haparnas is a technology veteran and writes about practical technology and science issues. This article can be reprinted and used as long as the resource box including the backlink is included. You can find more information about photo album printing and photography in general on - a site dedicated to photo printing.

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What is a Digital Photo JPEG File?

What is a Digital Photo JPEG File?

By Ziv Haparnas

Digital photos are stored as files on memory cards and computer hard disks. They can be stored in different file formats (each format has a unique file extension). Digital photo files can be compressed to save storage space and can use a standard or a proprietary format.

[caption id="attachment_1090" align="aligncenter" width="507"]What is a Digital Photo JPEG File? What is a Digital Photo JPEG File?[/caption]

Digital photos are saved as digital files on electronic media. These digital photo files are a collection of bytes. JPEG is a standard file format for storing such digital photos. The JPEG format supports compression and allows very efficient high quality storage of digital photos. When using the JPEG format any software from different vendors that adheres to the standard can create and process JPEG files.

JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group

The JPEG file format was designed by a special industry group for the purpose of storing and compressing high quality digital photos. Later on JPEG became an ISO standard and it is probably one of the most popular formats for storing digital photos today. JPEG files are also known simple as JPG files (named after their common file extension .JPG).

The design goal of the group was the efficient storage of digital photographic files while maintaining their original high quality (or quality which is as close as possible to the original one). JPEG files can support lossless compression but since lossless compression is inefficient when compressing digital photos it is hardly used. In most cases JPEG files use lossy compression to efficiently represent digital photos.

It is easy to understand the motivation for such efficient compression by using an example: Digital photos files are built of pixels each one has a value representing its color and intensity. Each pixel occupies 3 bytes (one for Red, one for Green and one for Blue - representing the color and intensity of the pixel). If you shoot a photo using an 8 mega pixels digital camera the photo will have 8000000 pixels each one occupying 3 bytes. The total file size would be 8000000*3=24000000 or 24Mbytes. This is a very big file. Big files are hard to manipulate they take a long time to send by email, they occupy large storage space and they take longer to load. If that same file was compressed into a JPEG digital photo file its size would reduce to about 3Mbytes - a much more manageable file size.

JPEG files are extremely efficient in compressing digital photos. They are using compression methods that were specifically designed for digital photos and take advantage of digital photos attributes that allow a more efficient representation of pixels. The JPEG format standardized the way a digital photo is represented and suggested ways to compress digital photos. Using this standard software from one vendor can compress and create a JPEG digital photo file while software from a different vendor can read and process it. There are many different compressors implementations that differ in the quality of the compressed photo. Also - the digital photo compressor can be set to different levels of compression. When using a very aggressive compression setting the digital photo file can be very small - the side effect however is degradation in quality - most noticeable is the appearance of large square areas with the same color and pattern.

JPEG files are the most commonly used ones by digital cameras to store compressed digital photos on memory cards and computer hard disks as they result in small file sizes and hardly any noticeable photo quality degradation. Most cameras also let the user set the level of compression applied to the digital photos - usually three level are provided: low, medium and high - where low results in minimal file size reduction but superior quality and high results in the smallest files but the highest degradation in quality - in most cases however that degradation is hardly noticeable by the amateur photographer.

Ziv Haparnas is a technology veteran and writes about practical technology and science issues. This article can be reprinted and used as long as the resource box including the backlink is included. You can find more information about photo album printing and photography in general on - a site dedicated to photo printing.

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What is the Difference Between Data Retrieval and Information Retrieval?

What is the Difference Between Data Retrieval and Information Retrieval?

By Mridz Boin

As we are moving into the information age there is a need to secure data transmission and also to store and retrieve the data and the information. Information Retrieval Systems are increasing with the advent of the technology.

[caption id="attachment_1087" align="aligncenter" width="512"]What is the Difference Between Data Retrieval and Information Retrieval? What is the Difference Between Data Retrieval and Information Retrieval?[/caption]

Let us fist talk about the basic differences between the data and the information.


  • It is the raw fact.

  • For its retrieval it needs to be fully mentioned. If the file name or the document name is not known or is case sensitive, there are chances for the system to fail and do not retrieve any document.

  • Examples of data are a piece of paper, a book, an algorithm.

  • In the above examples their location is not known and hence the meaning cannot be given to this data


  • Information is processed data.

  • For its retrieval a partial information is enough for its evaluation. Hence, the system never fails.

  • Examples of information are a piece of paper on a table, a book in the shelf, a bubble-sort algorithm.

  • In the above examples their location are known and hence they have a specified meaning.

Data retrieving systems can be found in the operating system search. Windows search is a best example for the data retrieval system. you would have to specify the exact name of the file that you desire. Where are information retrieval systems are like web search engines. The best known is Google. It processes the natural language and produces the output in encompassing the entire set of documents matching the query.

It is very much important in these days to retrieve the data at a faster rate. Earlier there used to linear search mechanisms where in the entire set of documents in the database are read and then sorted according to the query and displayed. This had varied complexities and took greater amount of time compared to the advanced techniques available these days.

In an information retrieval system, the documents are scanned for the query. To decrease the computation time of the system, the documents are scanned only for the repeated key words which are considered relevant to the document. The output displayed sends a feedback as an input for the next query. In this way with every query there is an increase in the performance of the system.

There should be more and more information retrieving systems to reduce the time of searching a document and this is done with the help of indexing.

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What is Data Mining? Why Data Mining is Important?

What is Data Mining? Why Data Mining is Important?

By Flori Lee

Searching, Collecting, Filtering and Analyzing of data define as data mining. The large amount of information can be retrieved from wide range of form such as different data relationships, patterns or any significant statistical co-relations. Today the advent of computers, large databases and the internet is make easier way to collect millions, billions and even trillions of pieces of data that can be systematically analyzed to help look for relationships and to seek solutions to difficult problems.

[caption id="attachment_1084" align="aligncenter" width="620"]What is Data Mining? Why Data Mining is Important? What is Data Mining? Why Data Mining is Important?[/caption]

The government, private company, large organization and all businesses are looking for large volume of information collection for research and business development. These all collected data can be stored by them to future use. Such kind of information is most important whenever it is require. It will take very much time for searching and find require information from the internet or any other resources.

Here is an overview of data mining services inclusion:

  • Market research, product research, survey and analysis

  • Collection information about investors, funds and investments

  • Forums, blogs and other resources for customer views/opinions

  • Scanning large volumes of data

  • Information extraction

  • Pre-processing of data from the data warehouse

  • Meta data extraction

  • Web data online mining services

  • Data online mining research

  • Online newspaper and news sources information research

  • Excel sheet presentation of data collected from online sources

  • Competitor analysis

  • Data mining books

  • Information interpretation

  • Updating collected data

After applying the process of data mining, you can easily information extract from filtered information and processing the refining the information. This data process is mainly divided into 3 sections; pre-processing, mining and validation. In short, data online mining is a process of converting data into authentic information.

The most important is that it takes much time to find important information from the data. If you want to grow your business rapidly, you must take quick and accurate decisions to grab timely available opportunities.

Outsourcing Web Research is one of the best data mining outsourcing organizations having more than 17 years of experience in the market research industry. To know more information about our company please contact us.

Outsourcing Web Research is one of the best data mining outsourcing organizations having more than 17 years of experience in the market research industry. To know more information about our company please contact us at: OR send your data mining needs on

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What is the Difference Between Disposable and Other Contact Lenses?

What is the Difference Between Disposable and Other Contact Lenses?

By Amy Nutt

If you wear corrective lenses or just found out you need to start wearing them, you may be interested in finding out what types of contact lenses are on the market. You have likely seen television commercials or internet ads for disposable lenses. Are disposable contacts safe? Are they the best choice for you? What else is available in terms of contact lenses? The below information will give you a general idea of types of contacts to consider and will inform you about them as well. Before making any decisions about what type to use, make sure to consider factors such as your lifestyle, budget, and more. Also, make sure to discuss all options with your eye care professional in order to make the best, most personalized decision.

[caption id="attachment_1081" align="aligncenter" width="525"]What is the Difference Between Disposable and Other Contact Lenses? What is the Difference Between Disposable and Other Contact Lenses?[/caption]

Types of Corrective Contact Lenses

Soft Lenses

Soft contacts are made of flexible plastic that is soft and permeable (allows oxygen to pass through the lens in order to reach the cornea of the eye). Many contact lens users say that soft contact lenses are much easier to get used to. Soft contact lenses also have the reputation of being more comfortable than other types of lenses. Disposable contacts tend to also be soft lenses.

Rigid Gas Permeable Lens

Rigid Gas Permeable (RGP) lenses are less comfortable than their soft counterparts, but they also tend to be more durable and resistant to buildup of deposits. RGP lenses are said to provide clearer, more crisp version than soft contact lenses. Because it is more durable, this type of contact lens is easier to handle without damaging or tearing. Because they are less comfortable, RGP's are more difficult to adjust to.

Extended Wear Lenses

Extended wear contacts typically tend to also be soft lenses. The difference between extended wear and daily wear lenses is that extended wear lenses can be worn continuously and/or overnight wear. Extended wear contacts can be worn overnight for only one night or they can be worn for up to thirty days. This type of contact lens is good for people who have a hard time remembering to remove their contact lenses.

Disposable Lenses

Disposable lenses are also called "Replacement schedule lenses." Most people who wear soft lenses of any type are on some sort of replacement schedule or another. It may be more or less frequent depending on the type of lens prescribed, but true daily wear disposable lenses are discarded and replaced daily. So basically, some disposable lenses are worn and replaced daily, and other disposable lenses (extended wear disposable lenses) are intended to be worn for a number of days continuously then discarded and replaced.

Who Should Wear Daily Disposable Contacts?

After reading the information above, you are undoubtedly more familiar with some of the types of corrective lenses. Just by looking into all the benefits and drawbacks that each different type of lens offers, you can start to get an idea of what type of lens might be right for you. There are several different factors that will contribute to determining what type of contact lens is best for you. Ultimately, the decision will be made between you and your eye care professional. People who have a hard time adhering to daily routines, people who have very little time to dedicate to personal care and hygiene and people whose eyes are highly susceptible to infection should consider wearing daily disposable lenses.

Australia's premiere online retailer of cheap contact lenses, special effects contacts and coloured contact lenses. View our wide selection of contact lenses Australia available at huge savings when compared to retail prices.

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What is the Difference Between an Eye Exam and a Contact Lens Exam?

What is the Difference Between an Eye Exam and a Contact Lens Exam?

By Amy Nutt

Whether you think you need vision correction and are considering contact lenses, or whether you've been using glasses or contacts for years, you may be curious about the difference between a routine eye exam and a contact lens exam. Perhaps you've never thought about it, always assuming that both are one and the same. The truth is, there are some fundamental differences between these two types of exams. The information below will give you an overview about each type of exam and explain the difference between the two so that you can ensure you are scheduling the right type of appointment with your eye care professional.

[caption id="attachment_1078" align="aligncenter" width="647"]What is the Difference Between an Eye Exam and a Contact Lens Exam? What is the Difference Between an Eye Exam and a Contact Lens Exam?[/caption]

Routine Eye Exam

A routine eye exam exists for the purpose of detecting vision problems, eye disease and general eye health issues. An eye exam can help identify any of these concerns before you are even aware that they exist. It is generally recommended that everyone have a routine eye exam every 1 to 3 years, depending on age, risk factors and physical condition.

What to Expect

Eye doctors use a variety of tests and procedures to examine your eyes. You will most likely be asked to read an eye chart. First you will read the chart with both eyes uncovered. Then you will read the chart while you cover one eye (and then the other eye). Your eye doctor will then perform tests which may or may not include these common tests:


For this test,the lights in the room are dimmed and you will be asked to focus your eyes on a target. While you stare at the target, a light will be shined into your eye and flip different lenses in a machine in front of your eyes. The way the light bounces off of your eye will provide a general approximation of what your prescription (should you need one) will be.


This test helps your eye care professional determine the exact level of augmentation that your vision requires. Refraction is done with a machine called a phoropter. The doctor will show you a series of lens choices and ask you which of the choices looks clearer. Based on your answers,the doctor will be able to determine your level of nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism and/or presbyopia.

Slit-Lamp Examination

A slit-lamp is an instrument that allows your doctor to examine the health of your eyes using a machine that highly magnifies all the structures contained therein. This way,your eye doctor can examine each part of your eye to evaluate them for infection or disease.

There are various other tests that eye doctors can choose to use during an eye exam to determine the general health and well-being of your eyes. A contact lens exam is different in that it focuses on only one aspect of your eye health.

The Contact Lens Exam

If you wear contact lenses or are considering starting, you should make sure to schedule a contact lens exam versus a regular eye exam. Basically, your eye doctor will need to run tests that will evaluate the surface of your eye's cornea in order to ensure a proper contact lens fit. Your doctor will also ask a series of questions about your lifestyle and preferences in order to determine the best type of contact lenses to prescribe for you. The doctor will measure the surface and curvature of your eye using an instrument called a kerameter. Then your pupil and iris will be measured. Finally, your eye doctor will select contact lenses for you and instruct you in proper insertion and care.

Premiere online retailer of cheap contact lenses Australia - including special effects lenses and coloured contact lenses Offers the widest selection of contact lenses for huge savings online when compared to retail prices.

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What is a Colocation Center?

What is a Colocation Center?

By Amy Nutt

As businesses go more global and become more adept at outsourcing, there will be an increased demand for virtualization and servers located off-site. This is the situation with many companies who store their data in places away from the office grounds. In layman's terms, Colocation is simply the process of hosting or getting space in a data center to either increase their server's capabilities in terms of space or just data storage. Many companies are opting for this method of data storage as backup for their on-site data.

[caption id="attachment_1076" align="aligncenter" width="560"]What is a Colocation Center? What is a Colocation Center?[/caption]

Colocation centres also known as data centers are specifically built for the purpose and have all measures taken to protect your data anytime. Given the nature of the data stored on their servers, all Colocation service providers know the import of not joking with information. Their servers are often equipped with some of the best if not customized encryption software making it impossible for even the guys working at the center to decrypt the data. Colocation has a lot of benefits and some of them are:

1. Reduced Costs and Expenses: Like it or not, installing new servers every time costs money. But with Colocation services, if you decide to move all your data off-site, your costs will be drastically reduced. The server you will be given will strictly be yours meaning that nobody except you will be able to access the data.

2. Pricing is far cheaper: While Colocation generally guarantees that you have access to your data anywhere in the world by a mere click of the mouse, the relatively cheaper pricing makes it a very attractive option to other forms of data storage available.

3. Flexibility and Bandwidth extension: Small business owners can often buy bandwidth in bits. Thus giving them the opportunity of extending or adding to their bandwidth anytime they want one without unnecessarily getting broke.

4. Complete access to the server: When you pay for a space in a Colocation center, the space is strictly meant for you alone. So only you will have access to your data except you give out the password and user ID. You can modify the server as you wish, increase your bandwidth if you want, install applications, encrypt and decrypt your data, upgrade the server as you wish and execute anything you want. Bottom line, you own the monopoly.

5. Safety: In case of any mishaps, you can rely on the centers to preserve your data. While the cost of preserving the data may be too much to handle for a start up company, getting an account with a Colocation company will ensure that your data as they often have anti-inflammatory measures that will seal the server rooms and suck out the oxygen in cases of an inferno, thus leaving the rooms near untouched. Most Colocation companies also have fibreglass protecting their servers in the data rooms.

In all, if you want to be sure of how safe your data is, you can go on a data center virtual tour. This will give you an idea of how protected your data will be in their care.

State of the art data centres with high-tech back-up facilities. Contact us in our facilities in Toronto data centres and Vancouver.

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What is a Computer Forensics Expert Witness?

What is a Computer Forensics Expert Witness?

By Jason Perry

What is an Expert Witness in the field of Computer Forensics? The most simple answer is a person who goes to court to testify regarding the accuracy and findings from the computer forensics service. In a nutshell, that is it. However, there is a lot more to being an Expert Witness in the field of Computer Forensics and E-Discovery.

[caption id="attachment_1071" align="aligncenter" width="650"]What is a Computer Forensics Expert Witness? What is a Computer Forensics Expert Witness?[/caption]

With the increased usage and dependence on the Internet - for corporate and individual communication - electronic communication is now the standard and 'paper' communication is the new exception.

  • 80% of all corporate data is stored electronically

  • 95% of new data is stored electronically (approximately 80% of this information stays in electronic format).

As a result, in almost every legal matter, critical and relevant evidence will be stored electronically. Proper collection and examination of this evidence is critical to avoid spoliation, to preserve the evidence, and to manage cost.

An Expert Witness is a specialized and quickly growing field of investigation within Computer Forensics and E-Discovery. And as such, these individuals are a leading defense, or offense - depending on which side of the litigation you are on, up corporate America's sleeve against cyber crimes and prosecuting 'hackers'. An Expert Witness service typically works closely with a Computer Forensics investigator, or perhaps has the credentials and experience of both.

Computer Forensic investigators uncover the depth of a security breach, recover data that has been corrupted or intentionally deleted, identify how a 'hacker' got past the security checks and if fortunate enough, identify the individual who caused the damages. The term 'hacker' can either be an individual on the Internet, an employee, or a spouse looking to steal or destroy data.

Expert witness service provides testimony, documentation and witness preparation to help present discovered electronic data in legal proceedings to help you prove and win your case.

Should your company, or yourself, need the service of an Expert Witness for a case dealing with Computer Forensics and E-Discovery, make sure that the computers which could be involved in the case are secured from use and contact a Computer Forensics service to discuss your situation.

Jason Perry

ADR Data Recovery is available to evaluate the damage and potentially recover your lost data. For more information on ADR Data Recovery's Computer Forensics service, visit

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What is Computer Forensics?

What is Computer Forensics?

By Jason Perry

It is the end of the day and it has been discovered that several critical files are missing from your file server. That alone is normally is enough to freak out most server administrators, but this specific incident also happened to be on the exact same day a particular employee was 'terminated'. As you recall that individual, had access to the missing data, but as far as you know, she didn't seem like the type of person to do something malicious. Then again, you noticed she seemed pretty upset as she was clearing out her desk that day too. You begin to wonder if there is a connection between the two, and if so, how you collect the necessary information to present to your manager.

[caption id="attachment_1068" align="aligncenter" width="650"]What is Computer Forensics? What is Computer Forensics?[/caption]

No, you are not imagining a scene from CSI or Court TV. This situation happens daily in real life and may have happened, or could happen, at the company you work for. Remember Enron?

What is Computer Forensics?

Computer forensics, sometimes known as "Digital Forensics" or "Electronic Evidence Discovery", is often described as "the preservation, recovery and analysis of information stored on computers or other electronic media".

Computer forensics has quickly become a vital tool and source of information for criminal investigators, corporate counsel, and prosecutors. Computer forensics investigators use their skills to identify and restore formatted, corrupted, deleted or hidden files from computers or other electronic media while maintaining crucial data trails, time & date stamps and accurate chain of custody & controls. They also obtain access to protected or encrypted data by using specialized software.

In addition, with the increased usage and dependence on the Internet, for corporate and individual communication, computer forensic investigators are equip to analyze emails, Internet searches, file transfers, online account transactions and anything else a computer is used to do over the Internet.

How do they do it?

Computer forensic investigators typically focus on 4 areas when investigating a potential incident. There are other areas of attention as well, but the following are the most common. Including illicit and damaging activities that could damage your company's reputation.

Saved Files

These are files that can be viewed on the computer. This is usually a non-intrusive task to obtain these files.

Deleted Files

These files are just that...deleted. They are either in the 'trash' or require special software to 'capture and restore' the files. This is usually a non-intrusive task to obtain these files.

Temporary Files

These files are typically generated from browsing the Internet, working on a document, some types of back-up software as well as certain software installations for example. Identifying these requires specialized software and is an intrusive process.

Meta Data

This information typically is associated with the details of a file or document. Such as, the date the file was created, modified and last accessed. Additional information that could be captured could include the original creator of the file (of course that information depends on the original installation of the application) as well as anyone who has ever accessed the file. Identifying these requires specialized software and may or may not be an intrusive process.

What would Computer Forensics Service be used for?

There are several possible uses for this type of service. The most common applications of computer forensics are as follows:

  • Divorce Cases

  • Electronic Investigation

  • Expert Witness Service

  • Corporate E-mail Investigation

  • Litigation Support

  • Intellectual Property Disputes

  • Investigation and Discovery Litigation Programs

  • Insurance Fraud Cases

  • Corporate Investigations

  • Corporate Counsel Support

  • Electronic Records Management

There are many reasons why you, or your company, may require the service of a computer forensics investigator. If you suspect that you may have an incident requiring computer forensic service, or electronic evidence discovery & analysis, you should secure the computer from further use and contact an experienced computer forensics service company.

Jason Perry

ADR Data Recovery is available to evaluate the damage and potentially recover your lost data. For more information on ADR Data Recovery's Computer Forensics service, visit

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What is a Sitemap XML File?

What is a Sitemap XML File?

By Jason Perry

A sitemap.xml file allows you to tell search engines about URLs on your websites that are available for crawling. Sitemap.xml files help search engine bots and does not replace the current crawl-based mechanisms that search engines already use to discover URLs. By submitting a sitemap.xml file, you are basically helping a search engine's crawler to do a better job of crawling and indexing your web site. Google, Yahoo!, and all are now 'friendly' with the sitemap.xml file.

[caption id="attachment_1060" align="aligncenter" width="659"]What is a Sitemap XML File? What is a Sitemap XML File?[/caption]

A Sitemap File

It should be noted that having a sitemap.xml file has no impact on the page rank of your website. Nor, will using a sitemap.xml file guarantee that your web pages will be included in the search results index. A sitemap.xml file is only a file which tells the search engine bots where to look for content on your web site.

A Sitemap Index File

You can create multiple sitemap.xml files, however each sitemap.xml file that you provide must have no more than 50,000 URLs and must be no larger than 10MB (10,485,760 bytes).

Tags in the Sitemap.xml File

Encapsulates the file and references the current protocol standard.

The URL Tag

Parent tag for each URL entry. The remaining tags are children of this tag.

The Loc Tag (Location)

This is the URL of the web page. It must be fully qualified URL.

The Change Frequency Tag

This setting indicates how frequently the content at a particular URL is likely to change. It can be set to always, hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or never.

The Last Modified Tag

The time the URL was last modified. This information allows crawlers to avoid recrawling documents that haven't changed. This date should be in W3C Date/Time format.

The Priority Tag

The priority of a particular URL relative to other pages on the same site. The value for this tag is a number between 0.0 and 1.0, where 0.0 identifies the lowest priority page(s) on your site and 1.0 identifies the highest priority page(s) on your site. The default priority of a page is 0.5.

The priority assigned to a web page has no influence on the position of your URLs in a search engine's result pages. Nor, does assigning a high priority to all of the URLs on your web site will help you.

These are the basic set-up tips for creating a sitemap.xml index file or a regular sitemap.xml file. For a complete listing of all of the sitemap.xml variables and options, is a good source of information on the actual creation and working samples of sitemap.xml files.

Jason Perry

A good SEO effort should be planned out, not rushed. Small Steps SEO Don't rush a good thing!

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What is Data Recovery?

What is Data Recovery And Why Does It Matter To You?

By Peter Bacon

To be precise, the phrase "data recovery" refers to the process whereby data is saved from storage media that has either been corrupted, damaged, failed, or made inaccessible for some reason. When data cannot be accessed the way it normally is, then we have to seek ways to recover it. This also happens to such entities as hard disk drives on computers, compact discs, DVDs, RAID, storage tapes, and other forms of electronics.

[caption id="attachment_1066" align="aligncenter" width="650"]What is Data Recovery? What is Data Recovery?[/caption]

Data loss typically comes about as a result of either physical damage to the device storing the data or else logical damage done to the device's file storage system. The latter type of damage results in the data being unable to be mounted by the host's operating system.

The term "data recovery" might also refer to the process whereby information that has been deleted is retrieved and secured from a storage system for forensic purposes.

Physical damage can afflict storage media in a variety of fashions. For one thing, a compact disc storing pertinent data can be affected by having one of its layers or its metallic substrate scraped off of it. Hard drive disks often experience mechanical failures, such as failed motors or head crashes. Quite often, tapes simply break down.

The problem with physical damage is that it always causes the loss of at least some - if not all data on the storage device. Sometimes the system's logical structures can be seriously damaged as well. Logical damage must be dealt with immediately in order for any data recovery to occur.

It is much more common for logical damage to occur than physical damage. Most of the time, logical damage comes about as the result of a power outage, which will prevent the structures of the file system from being written to the desired storage media. As a result, the file system remains inconsistent. If your system is behaving in a strange fashion or crashes, you might lose some pertinent data that will have to be recovered. Thankfully, it is much easier to do this when it is a case of logical damage, rather than physical damage.

Discover everything you need to know about data recovery here at Data Backup and Recovery - We also discuss free tools and software that you can download and use to recover you data.

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Monday, October 22, 2012

What is Reverse Engineering?

What is Reverse Engineering?

By Sian Savage

The clue is in the name when it comes to reverse engineering. This is a process of finding out the technological principles and mechanics of a device or item through examining the structure, function and operation.

[caption id="attachment_1064" align="aligncenter" width="650"]What is Reverse Engineering? What is Reverse Engineering?[/caption]

Often reverse engineering involves scanning an item in order to recreate a perfect 3d replication. Therefore, 3D scanning technologies also come into play, these can include both white light scanners, 3D scanners and CMMs.

Basically an item or device is taken and stripped down layer by layer with each layer being analysed until the entire workings and function of the device is known. This was the item can be remade or the original can even be improved.

The method of reverse engineering has been used quite a lot in the military. One of these examples is the design of the jerry can. During the Second World War the British army noticed that the German's jerry cans were of a better design and build than their own. So, they captured a few and used reverse engineering to discover how they worked etc.

As jerry cans were actually a German invention called Wehrmachtskanister, the English name 'jerry can' came about because they were stolen from Jerrys (Germans).

There are several reasons why reverse engineering is a good idea. These include product analysis, digital correction, military surveillance and for learning purposes. By working backwards we can see how an item worked when completed and then go backwards to see how this comes about, rather than the traditional route of starting from nothing and working up.

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What is Bluetooth?

What is Bluetooth? A Description of Bluetooth Technology

By Douglas Taylor

Every day we are seeing more and more electronic gadgets that are advertised as being Bluetooth enabled. This may leave you feeling excited or it may leave you trying to figure out what all of the fuss is about. You may just want to know what is Bluetooth? You may just want a simple description of Bluetooth technology.

[caption id="attachment_1058" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is Bluetooth? What is Bluetooth?[/caption]

Bluetooth mobile wireless technology is fast becoming a leader when it comes to technologies that involve wireless communication. It is becoming all the rage all over the world because in the short time it has been around this technology has paved the way for computers, telephones and other electronic gadgets to be able to communicate with other devices that are within range. The current range for Bluetooth wireless technology networking is about thirty feet.

The Bluetooth wireless system provides a cheap and secure way to communicate with other devices. This is done without the need for any wires.

You may be wondering what is Bluetooth good for. This is now used in almost all of the newer cell phones and handheld PDAs. Some laptops and printers use this as well. This is just a small sampling of the type of devices you can purchase that uses this technology. Every day more and more products are being brought to market.

Wireless phones are probably the most widely Bluetooth enabled device, but new things are coming out every day. You can now find wireless speakers and headphones. The future should see many new Bluetooth gadgets come into the marketplace. It is possible that some day wireless will really mean just that. The only wire you will see is the one that plugs into the wall socket. People will look forward to the day when that tangled mess of wires is a thing of the past.

Some of the big advantages of Bluetooth technology are how fast the transfer of data is and how inexpensive the components really are. You also are able to transmit both data and voice at the same time. It has been around for a few years now. It is becoming more and more popular because it is used by many different manufactures, and the price is reasonable. You can expect to see a lot more Bluetooth enabled devices come out and hopefully the prices will become more reasonable as time goes by. It will not be long before it will be hard to find someone who will ask the question what is Bluetooth. Soon a description of Bluetooth technology will not be needed.

Are you confused when it comes to Bluetooth technology? For more information on Bluetooth try visiting [] where you will find lots of tips, advice and resources about topics such as cellular Bluetooth headsets [].

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What is the Difference Between GPS and Sat Nav?

What is the Difference Between GPS and Sat Nav?

By Nathan Carey

Both the words GPS and Sat Nav have gradually crept into everyday use. They are are often used interchangeably. Is there a difference between them and if so, what is the difference?

[caption id="attachment_1054" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is the Difference Between GPS and Sat Nav? What is the Difference Between GPS and Sat Nav?[/caption]

Firstly, yes there is a difference.

GPS is short for Global Positioning System. It is the collective name for a group of satellites that are in orbit around the Earth. They were placed there by the US Government decades ago and made publicly available during the administration of President Reagan.

Using a GPS receiver (a small device that can send and receive signals from any satellite within range) you can get your precise location. This location is provided as a set of co-ordinates.

Using this information and the co-ordinates of your destination, many GPS receivers can 'guide' you to the destination using a compass-like arrow. In theory, if you have the GPS co-ordinates of your home, using a GPS receiver you can find your way home from even the remotest place in the world.

The GPS receiver has become a common item that is fitted to many devices, such as your mobile phone or the security system in your car. Many smartphones, such as the iPhone, have a GPS built-in. If allowed, applications can use this information to direct you to, say, the nearest Italian restaurant. Some digital cameras even have a GPS. They can use it record exactly where the photo was taken.

A sat nav (short for satellite navigation) is really some very special software that uses the GPS signal. It takes the co-ordinates provided by the GPS and combines that with a comprehensive map. Then, given a destination, the sat nav software will calculate a route for you to your destination. As the GPS signal is constantly updated, the sat nav can give you step-by-step instructions on where you are and when you need to make a turn.

TomTom and Garmin are probably two of the best known brands when it comes to GPS and sat nav equipment. TomTom is a European company, that mainly produces sat nav devices for motor vehicles along with software for smartphones. Garmin, and American company, have a much broader product range: everything from aircraft GPS systems to GPS watches to help athletes improve their performance.

Both of these technologies are improving and advancing and it will be interesting to see how they evolve.

Find out where to get the best deals on sat navs, such as the TomTom One Classic, and also more information and news about GPS and sat nav technology at GPS Review

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What is the Difference Between 3G and WiFi?

What is the Difference Between 3G and WiFi?

By Robert Bridge

Today we see a lot of people looking into their mobile phone devices; we see people checking for a reception and when this reception goes wrong especially in the city you can safely assume something strange is happening.

[caption id="attachment_1050" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is the Difference Between 3G and WiFi? What is the Difference Between 3G and WiFi?[/caption]

So lets take a look at how 3G differs from a Wireless connection and in this process see how effective information can actually be with extensive media and with using other basic principles for communications.

3G network is a global radio frequency used from the original Japan to the more local Europe and Western America. Companies range from being called Orange to being a mystical name the Unicorn company.

3G phones and the global usage is a prime example of the power of joint ventures; the services and the numbers of people who coverage reaches is in the multi millions. Therefore connecting and exchanging ideas and propositions has increased through this medium.

Telecommunications thanks to the profits raised between these ventures have helped sponsor sports around the world, because of all the usage the advertising to compete with competitors is becoming increasingly difficult to compete.

The solution for advertising again is Social Media, the best place to start is by looking for the companies who sell lots of mobile phones and create ads for them to display. The problem is there is strategically an exhaustive amount of information out there. Understanding how wireless phones scientifically deliver data, is another angle of distinguishing between two variables. Employing experts in these fields is one way of getting around the exhaustive amount of data out there.

The term 'wireless' explains more scientific details. Wireless does not just mean the power connection no longer needs plugging in, it also means wireless sharing. Focus on the wireless capabilities on the mobile devices, take that knowledge in the context of providing a service for either yourself, your client or online business and you will master wireless sharing.

Wireless sharing is not just peer-to-peer based and its history is far more complicated than a 'Blue-Tooth' or a 'Infra-Red' bedtime story. Peer to peer sharing with the right communications analogy and the collection of applications you use, this is recommended or created.

Similarly you can be in a room full of handheld devices where Wireless is enabled, they can be password protected or open to sharing files and this happens over wireless frequencies. This networking tip has been exhausted and superseded since the introduction of 3G, because 3G widens this scope by giving connection to the world Wide Web.

The G stands for 'Generation' and as you imagine a short gap between all three and now there is talks about 4G. Distinguishing between the two is very simple.

Basically anyone with a phone will understand what it is to have the benefits of 3G. Not all users will use the video calls or surf the net through the phone. Most people already have these options - in the palms of their hands.

Having a telephone where you can call somebody up is still relatively new, in industries the camera has been around for a long time and since the video camera's invention the communications and phoning has changed too.

Doors now have security devices where you can see who is downstairs, and likewise in TV Sci-Fi shows like 'Flash Gordon' we see video communications as very important.

Orson Wells highlighted the importance of surveillance in his book 1984 that was later made into a video financed by Virgin company owned by Richard Branson.

Wireless in telecommunications is best understood in the history of the CB radio, you can speak by pressing buttons and sharing similar devices that communicate with each other.

The 3G wireless unlike the telephone conference device you plugin to the wall through your phone connection still gives you the ability to speak face to face. This can either be wireless or outside the home, they have many differences other than the way communications happens.

A great way of dividing the two is 2G the Internet is called WAP having Internet in 2G was not a normal Internet browser and operates on the mobile contract, the best part about 2G of what I remember is having really cool games on the phone. 3G - 4G more practical applications for social media.

Social Media provides many extensions one of these is the ability to display and create your own PowerPoint presentations on computers and handheld devices.

You can also now design apps very easily and for free on the mobile phone, this is great news for local business who wish to advertise a new service to customers.

The difference between 3G and Wireless is purely based on preference and the cost price of your phone is nothing to take too seriously.

The two are both determined by the country and having the right facilities to give the communications you need.

The wireless phone limits communication to just audio and in the case of Bluetooth or Infra-Red you can send video's and photos to your own computer.

In summary the difference between 3G and Wireless starts with the device you are using.The communication limitations are purely based on the organisations involved and a member of or the team you choose from the choices you have. You can equally accept or deny files from both, this sharing is basically the method the information is transferred. This can happen through telecommunications visual, textual audio's, video's through something as simple as peer - peer sharing from mobile to mobile.

In the case of having an Internet connection this is the core difference. For business owners and start up owners who wish to leverage mobile sharing as a means to expand peer to peer communications a phone is a great way to increase what you are already doing by constructing new ways of sharing ideas and strategies.

Find out more about the author here.

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Sunday, October 21, 2012

What is a Representational Mass Reality?

What is a Representational Mass Reality? A Very Short Introduction

By Henry M. Piironen

The individual's sense of reality is representational, and it can even be said that all human experiences are representations, thus forming a representational reality in parallel with the physical reality. The contents of the representational reality are founded on the interpretations of the environment and on such responses as emotions. But what can we then call as the representational mass reality?

[caption id="attachment_1047" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is a Representational Mass Reality? What is a Representational Mass Reality?[/caption]

Consider a group of people in a kick ass metal concert. Each of them receives the representational content of the environment after a content generative cycle to their conscious mind, and as the source of the photons the retina receives is relatively the same, depending on the co-ordinates the persons are in, by combining the individual representational senses of the environment together, we are perceiving a representational mass reality. In such a domain, the metal star is under parallel perceptions of hundreds of individuals at the same time, their music stimulating each of their brains.

The representational mass reality of humanity is composed of every individual existing. Their combined whole defines the reality of Earth in contemporary terms, and the forms the reality takes comes to existence through every individual, whether in isolation or not. All persons have also an influence over the emerging forms of the future, and all actions taken lead for the casualties to be bind into increasingly more effects through the butterfly effect the further in time they exceed, if the cultural continuum doesn't meet such a terrific fate as a holocaust. The greater the influence during the brief existence, the greater effect, but it is enough to feel valuable from one's mere being, for in this too the ungreedy equally exist.

Humanity is also joined together by the use of the same words, however well defined they might between individual and another. The words in themselves are in case of substantives, adjectives and verbs names of a variety of phenomena, and the descriptive level of them in the dictionaries are the general descriptions of the phenomena. If one were to count the amount of same words an individual uses during one day, one would realize how much over the same matters the mind goes through daily. In the level of the representational mass reality, when everyone has an influence over it, the artistry and the responsibility is in that what should the reality be like? What should an individual's life be like, and what should the reality of consciousness in general be like in mass level? The contents of it, the richness of the experience one can for example receive from art, and literature. Considering the virtual reality of forums, why should an individual load it with so utter negativity, for similarly as individuals on a metal concert receive the contents of the co-ordinates they occupy, the contents of the consciousness in such a mass reality as forums will also be under parallel perceptions in mass level? In reality, the reality is what you make of it.

Henry M. Piironen is an Author, Poet, Philosopher, Scientist and the Founder of, a free online library. It provides you with thousands of titles from genres of fiction, philosophy, psychology, Christianity, Sacred Texts from over 40 religions and more. Read. Connect. Share. Now.

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What is a Book Review Service?

What is a Book Review Service?

By Michelle Spoils

A book review service will help you get the word out about your book and hopefully make others want to read it. If you look at top novels, you will notice that there are usually quotes from reviews from publications from the New York Times or other papers. This often happens with noted authors that have books published in large publishing houses. But how does the new author who has perhaps self published or is published with a very small publishing house get noticed? Very often, they use a book review service.

[caption id="attachment_1042" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is a Book Review Service? What is a Book Review Service?[/caption]

As you know, an increasing number of books are now sold online. This goes for movies and music as well. And most of the online websites that offer books also encourage book reviews. There are several places online where you can review books.

A book review service will read the book and then give an honest review of the book in various places online. These will be posted and may help you promote your book. While it is a nice idea to rely on those who read the book to actually post a review, people do not always do this. As a matter of fact, it is rare for the average person, even when prompted, to write a book review. Most of the book reviews that you see online are the result of a book review service.

A book review service will not just say that the book is good, but why. This is done in a way without giving away the ending of the book. The purpose of the book review service is to get others to want to buy the book. If you are trying to promote a book using the internet, the use of a book review service really makes sense. It may end up costing you a few dollars to promote your book in this manner, but it will work out for you in the end. A book review service is one of the best routes you can take if you are a new author trying to get others to read your book.

Using a book review service is similar to any other type of marketing. The marketing technique of the bandwagon effect is in force when it comes to book reviews. This is the concept that others will want something if they know that other people like it. It is a very old and very effective form of marketing and is used in all forms of advertising. Using a book review service is a way that you can market your book to the general public without it seeming like an ad.

Michelle Spoils is a consultant and author. Find out more by visiting

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What is a Book Reviewer?

What is a Book Reviewer?

By Michelle Spoils

A book reviewer is not always a professional person who reads books for a living and then reviews them in articles. Today, anyone can review books both online or at your local bookstore or library. Most book stores and libraries are looking for individuals to help them sell certain books. In such cases, you would not be paid for the book review but might, in the case of the book store, be presented with a copy of the book for free.

[caption id="attachment_1039" align="aligncenter" width="500"]What is a Book Reviewer? What is a Book Reviewer?[/caption]

The job of a book reviewer is to read the book and then comment on it. Comments should be as specific as possible without giving away the ending of the book or too much information. Positive comments should make the reader want to pick up the book and buy it. In most cases, negative book reviews will not be used in bookstores that are trying to sell books.

In addition to being a reader for a library or bookstore, you can also be an online book reviewer. Such individuals also do not get paid. They simply read books and then give a review of what they read in a brief review online. Unfortunately, there is no pay for doing this, although if you continue to review books long enough, you might be considered to be a good book reviewer and develop a following.

Anyone reviewing many books has a following of those who admire his or her opinions when it comes to books that are being read by the reviewer. The more noted the reviewer becomes, the more followed his or her opinions will be and the more authors will try to get this individual to read his or her book.

There are also book reviewers who go over unpublished works for publishing houses. They usually will recommend that a book be published to one of the publishers. They are also called readers. In order to get a job like this, you usually have a degree in writing or literature as this is often a stepping stone for some writers to take.

If you like to read, you may enjoy reviewing books. The more you build up a reputation, the more people will look forward to your book reviews. One way to do this is to review books that you have read on various websites and get your name out there to the general public. You can become a noted book reviewer, thanks to the internet, even if you are not getting paid to do this service.

Michelle Spoils is a consultant and author. Find out more by visiting

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